For structure, insulation and cladding, wood is one of the most preferred materials when building an ecological house. Renewable and recyclable, it has assets that are particularly well adapted to sustainable construction.
Wood is considered as an ecological material for several reasons: it is a biodegradable natural resource, it generates few waste when it is installed, and it is a carbon sink, as forests absorb and keep CO2. In this context, it should be specified that for wood to be ecological, it must be certified by labels guaranteeing that it comes from sustainably managed forests, must not have been treated with polluting or toxic solutions and its transport must be limited.
Wood as a structure
Wood can be used as a structural material for building. It is then assembled according to four processes:
- Log houses
- Solid wood houses (wooden beams)
- Lightweight frame constructions (beams filled with insulating materials)
- Modular houses (different separate modules)
Wood is thus chosen as a structural material for its various advantages: it is a light material, speed of execution, suitable for seismic areas, able to absorb and release moisture, but also has good fire resistance.
Wood as an insulation
This environmentally friendly material is also very effective as an insulation material. Wood fiber, which is available in panels or bulk, can be used for both interior and exterior insulation. As with its use in structures, wood as insulation is known to maintain a good moisture regulation. It is also a good acoustic insulator that resists over time, but is relatively expensive.
Wood as exterior cladding
This is currently the big trend ! Wooden facades are nowadays in vogue thanks to their warm, authentic and natural aesthetics. In addition to its decorative dimension, wood is also preferred because it can be applied to different types of construction, ecological or not, and is weather-resistant. Finally, another notable advantage for exterior cladding is that wood has good thermal insulation. Indeed, a wooden cladding allows to reinforce the thermal insulation of a construction and helps to limit thermal bridges.